Click here to visit the Tucci Clothing web site. Click here to visit the Quiz web site River Island River Island offers an extensive on-line range of women's fashion clothing. The Ariella collection combines stunning couture detailing with a range of fabrics such as lacquered lace, silk chiffons and knitted chainmail accentuated with draping, ruching and peplums. Click here to visit the Pret a Portobello web site Pretty Little Thing Pretty Little Thing offers fast women's fashion at affordable prices and has expanded rapidly since its launch in If you like exclusive designer clothing from up-market labels then Liberty is really worth checking out.
Absolute poverty is the absence of enough resources to secure basic life necessities. According to a UN declaration that resulted from the World Summit on Social Development in Copenhagen in , absolute poverty is "a condition characterised by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education, and information.
It depends not only on income, but also on access to services. David Gordon's paper, "Indicators of Poverty and Hunger", for the United Nations, further defines absolute poverty as the absence of any two of the following eight basic needs: The basic needs approach is one of the major approaches to the measurement of absolute poverty in developing countries.
It attempts to define the absolute minimum resources necessary for long-term physical well-being , usually in terms of consumption goods. The poverty line is then defined as the amount of income required to satisfy those needs. The 'basic needs' approach was introduced by the International Labour Organization's World Employment Conference in The basic needs approach to development was endorsed by governments and workers' and employers' organizations from all over the world.
It influenced the programmes and policies of major multilateral and bilateral development agencies, and was the precursor to the human development approach. A traditional list of immediate "basic needs" is food including water , shelter, and clothing. Different agencies use different lists. In , Ghai investigated the literature that criticized the basic needs approach. Critics argued that the basic needs approach lacked scientific rigour; it was consumption-oriented and antigrowth.
Some considered it to be "a recipe for perpetuating economic backwardness" and for giving the impression "that poverty elimination is all too easy".
In the development discourse, the basic needs model focuses on the measurement of what is believed to be an eradicable level of poverty. It is the "most useful measure for ascertaining poverty rates in wealthy developed nations". For practical purposes, the problem of poverty in the industrialized nations today is a problem of relative poverty page 9.
However, some have argued that as relative poverty is merely a measure of inequality, using the term 'poverty' for it is misleading. For example, if everyone in a country's income doubled, it would not reduce the amount of 'relative poverty' at all.
In , Adam Smith argued that poverty is the inability to afford "not only the commodities which are indispensably necessary for the support of life, but whatever the custom of the country renders it indecent for creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without. In , John Kenneth Galbraith argued, "People are poverty stricken when their income, even if adequate for survival, falls markedly behind that of their community.
In , in a joint committee economic President's report in the United States, Republicans endorsed the concept of relative poverty: The definition varies from place to place and time to time. In America as our standard of living rises, so does our idea of what is substandard. In , Rose Friedman argued for the use of relative poverty claiming that the definition of poverty changes with general living standards. Those labelled as poor in , would have had "a higher standard of living than many labelled not poor" in In , British sociologist, Peter Townsend published his famous definition: Brian Nolan and Christopher T.
Whelan of the Economic and Social Research Institute ESRI in Ireland explained that "poverty has to be seen in terms of the standard of living of the society in question. A measure of relative poverty defines "poverty" as being below some relative poverty threshold. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys. Definitions of the poverty line do vary considerably among nations.
For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Even among rich nations, the standards differ greatly.
Thus, the numbers are not comparable among countries. Even when nations do use the same method, some issues may remain. In United States, the poverty thresholds are updated every year by Census Bureau. The threshold in United States are updated and used for statistical purposes. Census Bureau data released on 13 September , the nation's poverty rate rose to India's official poverty level, on the other hand, is split according to rural versus urban thresholds.
For urban dwellers, the poverty line is defined as living on less than Using a poverty threshold is problematic because having an income slightly above or below is not substantially different; the negative effects of poverty tend to be continuous rather than discrete, and the same low income affects different people in different ways. To overcome this problem, a poverty index or indices can be used instead; see income inequality metrics.
A poverty threshold relies on a quantitative , or purely numbers-based, measure of income. If other human development-indicators like health and education are used, they must be quantified, which is not a simple if even achievable task.
Using a single monetary poverty threshold is problematic when applied worldwide, due to the difficulty of comparing prices between countries. Prices of the same goods vary dramatically from country to country; while this is typically corrected for by using purchasing power parity PPP exchange rates, the basket of goods used to determine such rates is usually unrepresentative of the poor, most of whose expenditure is on basic foodstuffs rather than the relatively luxurious items washing machines, air travel, healthcare often included in PPP baskets.
The economist Robert C. Allen has attempted to solve this by using standardized baskets of goods typical of those bought by the poor across countries and historical time, for example including a fixed calorific quantity of the cheapest local grain such as corn, rice, or oats. In addition to wage and salary income, investment income and government transfers such as SNAP Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, also known as food stamps and housing subsidies are included in a household's income.
Census Bureau calculates the poverty line the same throughout the U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Poverty line. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Prices are pretty cheap with seasonal discount offers available too. Click here to visit the Fashion Union web site.
Fashion World specialise in selling flattening clothing and lingerie inspired by the latest trends but at great value prices. They've got collections for every occasion in sizes some styles Click here to visit the Fashion World web site. They offer fast delivery, as well as a no quibble, free returns policy. They also stock a selection of dresses, tops, jeans and knitwear.
Click here to visit the Figleaves website. Fifty Plus is site that will appeal to the mature woman who is still young at heart. Their collections are available in sizes with a petite collection for ladies that are 5'1" or less.
You can also "try before you buy" for 14 days and Click here to visit the Fifty Plus website. At Forever 21 you'll find the latest fun and exciting trends at very affordable prices.
With over stores in 15 countries they're one the most recognisable brands. Look out for their daily flash deals online. Click here to visit the Forever 21 web site.
Forever Unique is a glamorous designer female fashion brand. They're best known for their original designs and use of luxurious fabrics, which aim to make any woman feel special.
A major player in global fashion, the brand has also become a clear favourite amongst the fashion press and celebs such as Nicole Scherzinger, Ashley Roberts, Kim Marsh and Una Healy to name a few. Click here to visit the Forever Unique web site. French Connection has been providing cool clothes for fashionable men and women since Their latest FCUK collections are now available to browse and buy online. Click here to visit the French Connection web site.
Gap now sell their latest clothes range online through their new UK web site too previously this was just in the US. In addition to buying their latest collectios, you can also find your local Gap stores and outlets online. Click here to visit the Gap web site. Girl Meets Dress is the UK's leading designer wear hire website. Whatever the occassion they've got a great choice of dresses and accessories available from luxury clothes brands like Alexander Wang, Marc Jacobs, Miu Miu and many more.
Click here to visit the Girl Meets Dress web site. This Manchester based fashion brand aims to be you on trend indivudual fashions at affordable prices.
Their clothing collections are inspired by contemporary night culture, vintage and high fashion, with fabrics sourced from across the globe. Click here to visit the Glamorous website. Goddiva specialise in celebrity fashion trends and is a great shopping destination for fashion-savvy women looking for the latest trends at affordable prices.
Click here to visit the Goddiva website. Great Plains is a popular women's fashion boutique and catalogue retailer. They bring you collections of trendy and more classic dresses, tops, skirts, jackets, knitwear, cardigans, jeans and trousers made in quality luxurious fabrics and using seasonal colours and designs.
Click here to visit the Great Plains web site. Founded in California in the early 80s, Guess brings you a trendy collection of jeans and clothes for women who like to look glamerous and fashionable. They currently have over sales outlets in over 80 countries too. No online shopping, but a store locator will help you find their nearest branch. At House of CB you can buy all the latest celebrity looks for less.
Their styles are inspired by iconic women, killer curves and everything empowering, while their signature pieces regularly grace the pages of Heat, Instyle, Look, Grazia, NOW and OK!
Their clothing selection includes funky dresses, skirts, jackets, jumpsuits, tops, swimwear and accessories as well as a selection of dresses 'ready for the races'. Click here to visit the House of CB web site. House of Fraser are one of the most fashion conscious department stores and now you can also buy their collections of womenswear online. There's a clearance section with discounted items too.
Click here to visit the House of Fraser web site. For stylish and comfortable women's loungewear, nightwear and beachwear look no further than Hush. Featured in Harpers and Vogue, their collections include everything from silky lounge trousers and big sloppy jumpers to summery beach dresses and kaftans. Click here to visit the Hush web site. Izabel is one of the fastest growing womens fashion brands in the UK. Their stylish dresses, tops, skirts, jackets, coats and trousers are best-sellers in many of the retail chains and department stores which stock them such as Debenhams and House of Fraser.
Victoria Beckham is also a famous customer. Click here to visit the Izabel London web site. Jaeger, the renowed British luxury clothing brand, brings you a collection of stylish and innovative womenswear that combines the latest catwalk trends with luxurious fabrics.
Click here to visit the Jaeger web site. This mail order catalogue offers a great range of quality fashion essentials designed to provide the best fit at great value. JD Williams also specialises in the area of larger size womenswear Click here to visit the JD Williams web site. Jigsaw aim to sell affordable, fashionable clothes. You can find a very good selection of their latest range online, though the other goal of their site is also to advise customers about the new stock delivered to their shops each week and about any other 'latest Jigsaw clothing news'.
Click here to visit the Jigsaw web site. Joe Browns brings you a really cool selection of funky and trendy clothes and accessories. Their ladies' jackets, jeans, T-Shirts, tops and skirts are also priced well below most high street designer labels.
Click here to visit the Joe Browns web site. At John Lewis' department store you'll find top brands like Nougat, Ted Baker and JL, as well as great value clothes from their own brand. All new season's looks are put together by outfit making it easy to inspire your wardrobe.
Click here to visit the John Lewis web site. Joules is a fast growing lifestyle brand which sells individual and quality womenswear. Their fresh and colourful collection includes knitwear, trousers, polo shirts, long-sleeved tops, gilets, jackets, accessories and even funky wellies. Click here to visit the Joules web site. Kaleidoscope is aimed at the more mature woman who likes to keep in touch with the latest fashion trends.
We can certainly recommend checking out their fine womenswear collections and Click here to visit the Kaleidoscope web site.
At Karen Millen you'll find fun, feminine and polished clothes collections which cover occasion, work, day and week-end wear. Their website features online shopping by garment or collection, as well as a list of their Karen Milen High Street stores. Click here to visit the Karen Millen web site.
At Kookai, the French fashion label for women, you can browse through the exciting latest collections of Kookai clothing. The site also features a store locator, E-cards and interactive games. Click here to visit the Kookai web site. La Redoute, the experienced mail order company, offers a unique blend of quality, service and style, bringing you the very latest French creations from the catwalks of Paris.
You'll find everything from everyday essentials to designer exclusives, indulgent lingerie and all your favourite sportswear brands. Click here to visit the La Redoute web site. Laura Ashley's collection has a definitive, lasting quality that calls on soft, feminine lines and a relaxed approach to dressing. You can also order the Laura Ashley catalogue or gift vouchers through their site.
Click here to visit the Laura Ashley web site. If you like exclusive designer clothing from up-market labels then Liberty is really worth checking out. Click here to visit the Liberty web site. Their stylish dresses, tops, skirts, jeans, jackets and jumpsuits are liked by many fashionistas, celebrities and wannabes.
Click here to visit the Lipsy web site. LK Bennett nicely bridges that gap between high-end designer and high-street, bringing you a stylish collection of women's jackets, suits, trousers, knitwear, tops, skirts and dresses at prices that don't break the bank. Click here to visit the L. Littlewoods, the renowned UK-based mail order catalogue, offers a great selection of affordable and fashionable womenswear including sports, beach, designer and footwear ranges. Click here to visit the Littlewoods web site.
Little Mistress is UK clothing label with a rapidly growing following. They adapts the latest catwalk trends and in-season colours to create fun, chic, feminine yet affordable collections. Their styles include pieces for all social occasions and looks that can be worn day and night. Click here to visit the Little Mistress web site. They bring you a collection of fashionable and affordable ladieswear, including ladies plus, petite and tall ranges, as well as swimwear, lingerie and accessories.
At Madam Rage you'll find a cool and trendy collection of dresses, top and knitwear. Their women's fashions follow the latest trends with special departments for holidays and festivals inspiration. Click here to visit the Madam Rage web site. The Mango clothing web site features useful info on the latest trends, an online Mango clothes catalogue with all the prices and access to the MangoShop. Be advised that your purchases will be delivered from Spain.
Click here to visit the Mango web site. New autumn ranges are now available online. Massimo Duti is a Spanish clothes retailer with a growing presence on the High Street. Their site features images of their latest collections of classic yet modern wear, as well as impressions of what their stores look like. Click here to visit the Massimo Dutti web site. This popular high street store brings you an exciting collection of dresses, tops, jeans, jackets, coats, trousers, skirts and knitwear for women who like the latest trends but not the high designer prices.
Click here to visit the Matalan web site. For this season's must haves check out Matches, the popular London based chain of high-end designer fashion boutiques. Click here to visit the MatchesFashion. Popular in America since , Max Studio has now also come to our shores. Their women's clothing collections have a fresh, romantic and feminine feel to them and are popular with celebrities and the public alike.
You can shop by style, colour and size, while there's a very good sale section featured online too. Click here to visit the Max Studio web site. Founded in , Miss Pap is one of the UK's up and coming fashion e-tailers particularly popular with year olds. They specialise in dresses, accessories and clothing for women that are on-trend but affordable Click here to visit the Miss Pap web site.
At Miss Selfridge you can check out their latest collections of trendy womenswear and buy in comfort though their online boutique. Click here to visit the Miss Selfridge web site. The designers at Monsoon take their inspiration from the far corners of the world, celebrating global culture and bringing you fashions that speak to women who dress with a sense of adventure and individuality.
You can buy their stylish collections which combine vivid colours and rich fabrics online or from any of their now over high street stores worldwide. Click here to visit the Monsoon web site. This French label showcases the latest collections of their highly creative and affordable Morgan clothes online.
No shopping, but a store locator will help you find your nearest Morgan shop. Click here to visit the Morgan web site. Motel Rocks is an independent female cult label aimed at fashion conscious girls and women. They stock unique trendy dresses, pants, tops, knitwear, skirts, jumpsuits, jackets and accessories at competitive prices.
Click here to visit the Motel Rocks web site. If you are looking for something exclusive, then Net-a-Porter is 'the place to be'. They sell cutting-edge fashion online from over of the world's most coveted designers including Chloe, Marc Jacobs, Cacharel, Karl Donoghue and Christian Louboutin. Prices are what you'd expect to pay for exclusivity, but window shopping is free.
Click here to visit the Net a Porter web site. The New Look site brings you the latest looks, top fashion tips and competitions. They now offer online shopping and there's also a store locator to find your nearest New Look. Click here to visit the New Look web site. The complete new season's style range from Next Directory is available to browse and buy online from their easy to use website.
Click here to visit the Next web site. The Oasis web site features useful women's fashion guides: You also find what clothes are new in-store, exclusive card holder offers and a store locator. Click here to visit the Oasis web site. Orvis an established online shopping site with an outstanding reputation for fine outdoor and country style clothes and accessories.
Click here to visit the Orvis web site. For almost 50 years, Peter Hahn has stood for quality fashion that is both modern and timelessly beautiful. They pay particular attention to providing the perfect fit, especially for women aged 45 upwards, with sizes up to Fabrics range from elegant cashmere and delicate silk to pure linen and the finest cotton.
In addition to their own exclusive brands they also sell clothing ranges from Basler, Bogner, Escada and Gerry Weber. Click here to visit the Peter Hahn web site. Pilot is one of the UK's leading brands of women's clubbing, working and chilling fashions for the trendy 16 to 25 year-olds.
A useful outfit builder, latest trends buying tips and store finder are featured too. Click here to visit the Pilot web site. Click here to visit the Plain Lazy web site.
Planet design contemporary fashions for the modern professional lady and have been doing so since Their stylish and versatile clothes collections reflect the often hectic, social and working lifestyle of today's self-assured woman and are presented in sizes Click here to visit the Planet web site. PretaPortobello brings together new design talent and quirky fashions normally only available at London's fabulous street markets.
Designers create virtual market stalls to showcase their clothing collections and accessories. And as a customer, you cannot just browse from the comfort of your home, but you can also haggle for a discount in real-time, just like you could on an actual market. Click here to visit the Pret a Portobello web site. Pretty Little Thing offers fast women's fashion at affordable prices and has expanded rapidly since its launch in You'll find everything from trendy dresses, fierce footwear and cool accessories to every day essentials and fashion basics Click here to visit the Pretty Little Thing web site.
Principles, the high street petite clothing specialist, is no longer trading online. We can recommend Precis Petite for a similar range of stylish casual and smart clothes in smaller sizes Click here to visit the Precis web site. With more than fashion stores all around the world, Promod is a leading brand in women's ready-to-wear fashion. New fashion items are introduced every week, and they also have a constant stream of special offers , including a welcome gift for a first order placed!
Click here to visit the Promod web site. Pure Collection is a specialist cashmere mail-order company offering a fine selection of cashmere fashions for women at sensible prices. Click here to visit the Pure Collection web site. Quiz Clothing is a popular high street chain which focuses on bringing you the latest catwalk style looks and trends at affordable prices. Their high fashion clothes are in vogue with the 15 to 35 audience, and their funky website also features an interactive outfit builder.
Click here to visit the Quiz web site. River Island offers an extensive on-line range of women's fashion clothing. Click here to visit the River Island web site. Select Fashion is a leading value womenswear retailer with stores throughout the UK. Young women will find everything from the season's must-have trends to essential items at very affordable prices.
Click here to visit the Select web site. If you're looking for a cool and trendy t-shirt then do check out Shot Dead in the Head. Their T's feature funny and topical slogans and some have been featured in Vogue, Heat and Mojo or soon on celebrities like Paris Hilton or Mrs. Click here to visit the Shot Dead in the Head web site.
Simply Be brings you seasonal women's fashion for all occassions, including casual wear, partywear, sportswear, footwear and lingerie. Click here to visit the Simply Be web site. Many labels are exclusive and you can shop by celebrity too to see who's wearing what. Click here to visit the Spoiled Brat web site. As one of London's Jermyn Street finest shirtmakers, T. Their womenswear department also stocks business suits, jackets, trousers and shirts, as well as knitwear in a vibrant range of colours.
Click here to visit the T. The Kooples is a global fashion retailer with 34 high street stores the UK. In their women's collection you'll find trendy outfits for an evening out on the town as well as suits, jackets and trousers for the work day.
Click here to visit the The Kooples web site. Click here to visit the theOutnet web site. The Savile Row Company makes luxury clothes at affordable prices. Click here to visit The Savile Row Company website. The White Company is a specialist mail-order company offering a selection of stylish clothes, principally in White. Their philosophy is and always has been to provide only the finest quality at outstanding value for money. Click here to visit The White Company web site.
Topshop offers a range of trendy, hip and funky clothes at affordable prices. Shopping can be done by collection or product, and the week's new arrivals are neatly displayed together. Click here to visit the Topshop web site.
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