Retrieved October 18, In its first year alone the event featured a laser show, and had as many as 40 to 60 thousand attendants over the course of four days; financial difficulties however led to its cancellation in At Best Buy, you'll be surrounded by cutting-edge technology and get to work with energetic people who like having fun helping people. Mount Tom is characterized by its high cliffs, sweeping vistas, and microclimate ecosystems. Known by its moniker, the "Paper City", Holyoke's economic base was developed almost entirely around the paper industry for the better part of the late 19th and early 20th century; at one time the city was reportedly the largest producer of stationery, writing, and archival goods in the world.
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The Holyoke Machine Company, manufacturer of the Hercules water turbine, was among many industrial developments of the era. Holyoke's population rose from just under 5, in to over 60, in Due to this staggering growth the municipality was officially incorporated as a city on April 7, , only 23 years after its initial incorporation as the "Town of Holyoke".
Pearsons who, a quarter-century earlier, had established himself among the first lawyers in the city, and was the first editorial writer of the area newspaper-of-record, the Hampden Freeman , best known as the Holyoke Transcript-Telegram. Holyoke was also previously the location of the headquarters of the American Writing Paper Company , a trust company established in with the merging of 23 rag paper mills, 13 of which were located in Holyoke. At one point the company was the largest producer of fine papers in the world, however incompetent leadership lacking technical knowledge of the industry, and heavily oriented around shareholder returns, led the company to fold as a manufacturer by The city was thus a rare unaffected area in the Northeast blackout of , for example.
The city is bordered by Southampton and Westfield to the west, Easthampton to the north, Hadley, South Hadley and Chicopee as river borders to the east, and West Springfield to the south.
Mount Tom is characterized by its high cliffs, sweeping vistas, and microclimate ecosystems. Fossilized dinosaur tracks and specimens can be found at the foot of these mountains due to their unique geology. A species of dinosaur, Podokesaurus holyokensis , whose fossils were first discovered across the river in South Hadley , was given its name for the area,  and the city has in recent years passed measures to try to protect fossils in the its parks from theft or vandalism.
The city of Holyoke contains 15 distinct neighborhoods of differing character. Some, like Springdale and Oakdale , were conceived by individual developers as streetcar suburbs for mill workers in the 19th century, whereas others like Rock Valley and Elmwood were previously extant villages within West Springfield that predate the city.
Additionally a number of names such as Ewingville and Elmwood Heights  have been used historically but have become defunct as separate entities. In alphabetical order, Holyoke's neighborhoods are: Gradually the Holyoke Water Power Company began building housing on its land holdings to sell to working families,  and by the end of the 19th century more private developments had begun to appear. Holyoke's architecture can be characterized by a mixture of Italianate , Gothic Revival , Queen Anne and Second Empire , with some Tudor revival examples throughout its neighborhoods.
Atwood ,  and the now-defunct Connecticut River Railroad Station designed by eminent architect H. Throughout its history Holyoke has been home to a number of local architects who shaped its unique urban landscape. The most prominent included George P. Alderman , who designed industrial buildings as well as the Holyoke Post Office , apartment blocks, and many of the city's iconic Victorian estates.
Alderman started his independent practice after being an apprentice to James A. Architect Oscar Beauchemin 's work shaped both the Main Street landscape of Springdale and many large multi-colored brick tenements built in mixed density housing can be attributed to him, often with Renaissance Revival architectural motifs.
Holyoke's own millwright engineers and architects David and Ashley Tower, doing business as D. Tower , would go on to design more than mills in the latter half of the 19th century, and in many respects made Holyoke synonymous with its present-day handle "The Paper City". Holyoke's paper mills from this period were largely the work of the brothers, who designed mills on five continents and among the first of Kimberly-Clark and Crane Currency.
As one of the first planned industrial communities in the United States, downtown Holyoke features rectilinear street grids —a novelty in New England. This street hierarchy is seen as a potential economic development tool as it lends well to high-rise buildings, and the surrounding canals could be landscaped into a source of recreation and relaxation. A series of railways running parallel to these canals also provided easy access to freight, a number of which remain operational today under the Pioneer Valley Railroad.
As of the census of , there were 39, people, 15, households, and 9, families residing in Holyoke. There were 16, housing units in the city. The racial makeup in was Hispanic or Latino of any race were There were 15, households, out of which Of all households, The average household size was 2. In the city, The median age was For every females, there were For every females age 18 and over, there were The city reached its peak population just before the First World War in , with an estimated total of 62, people according to a report by the school superintendent at that time.
Throughout its history Holyoke has undergone fluctuations in different foreign-born demographics. Historically, a city of working-class immigrants, the first wave of mill workers was predominantly Irish. Irish immigrants began to settle in the region before the construction of the dam and the industrialization that followed, which is why the area was often referred to as "Ireland" or "Ireland Parish.
Traditional accounts refer to John Riley as the first permanent settler of Holyoke,  : With the emergence of Holyoke's industries after the city's founding, a new wave of Irish immigration occurred and by a third of the city's residents were of Irish heritage. Holyoke's Irish roots are celebrated in its annual St. In the s, the mill owners began to recruit French-Canadians , who were viewed as docile and less likely to create labor unions due to their agrarian backgrounds and anti-union rhetoric promoted by Québecois clergy at that time.
He and his sons would bring in a number of line workers for the Lyman Mills , including his son John J. Prew, who went on to become the founder of Springdale and the first French member of the city council, then known as the board of aldermen.
Holyoke's mills had begun to shutter due to the changing economic landscape of early globalization and deindustrialization ; from to , 1 for every 2 industrial jobs vanished.
As a city of built by several immigrant groups throughout its history, Holyoke is home to houses of worship for numerous denominations of Christianity and Judaism.
One of the city's oldest monikers was Baptist Village as the first congregation established there was the First Baptist Church of Holyoke, which first erected a meetinghouse in , traces its origins to five baptisms on the shores of the Connecticut in , and continues as a congregation today. Jerome's, and Immaculate Conception Parish also reside in the city.
In addition to its parishes, the city has a number of convents of sisters including the Sisters of Providence of Holyoke in Ingleside , the Sisters of St.
Joseph of Springfield who maintain some group homes there, and the Sisters of St. Francis of Assisi in Highland Park. Protestant congregations have played a significant role in Holyoke's civic life since its founding, including such groups as the First Congregational Church of Holyoke, founded in ,  the First Lutheran Church of Holyoke, founded in ,  and the United Methodist Church of Holyoke, South Hadley, and Granby, which meets in South Hadley , which was founded in Holyoke is also home to a significant Jewish population.
As one of 35 municipalities in Massachusetts with more than Jewish residents, Holyoke is home to an estimated 1, residents observing the faith and two synagogues, Congregation Sons of Zion, a Reform congregation, and Congregation Rodphey Sholom, practicing Orthodoxy.
Both congregations originated in the 19th century, with Rodphey Sholom being founded in but tracing its heritage to the Paper City Lodge of the Order Brith Abraham, founded in , and Sons of Zion being founded in ; today both congregations often hold joint services during certain holidays.
Known by its moniker, the "Paper City", Holyoke's economic base was developed almost entirely around the paper industry for the better part of the late 19th and early 20th century; at one time the city was reportedly the largest producer of stationery, writing, and archival goods in the world. Several international companies also maintain manufacturing facilities in the area, including a power transmission factory for U.
Tsubaki in Springdale , and a Sonoco cardboard recycling plant in South Holyoke. Some former mills have in the past been used as incubators for new manufacturing businesses as well; from until , when it relocated to a newly constructed factory in Deerfield , Yankee Candle's first factory was located in one such building in the canal district.
Though the number of service-based jobs overtook Holyoke manufacturing jobs in ,  the city is still home to an array of manufacturing concerns outside of the paper and textile industries, including several producing industrial machinery and components. Until , its oldest manufacturer was the Holyoke Machine Company which, incorporated in , served large mills and factories with specialty roll parts and service; the firm manufactured a number of different products. At one time the company produced the "Holyoke Hercules" model of water turbine which served the city's industries on the canal system, and previously their shops cast the bronze doors to the U.
In recent years the city has also seen a handful of food manufacturing firms, due to its proximity to large metropolitan areas like New York City and Boston. In the Paper City Brewing Company opened out of one of the former Farr Alpaca Company's facilities, following a period of financial difficulties in , the brewery closed temporarily, with plans in place to reopen in the future.
In recent years there have been successful efforts to attract high-tech jobs to Holyoke and diversify its economic base. For example, a coalition of universities and tech companies have built the Massachusetts Green High Performance Computing Center , an energy-efficient, high-performance computing center, in Holyoke which opened in The data center has been built in Holyoke in part due to hydropower accessibility. The retail sector has been a major employer since the construction of the Holyoke Mall , one of the largest shopping malls in New England, in The city also features the corporate headquarters of PeoplesBank , the largest bank in Western Massachusetts, as well as the local Holyoke Credit Union which was originally started as a credit union for the students of a former parochial school.
Despite its reputation as an industrial city, agriculture has played a continuing role in the city's livelihood throughout its history. On July 24, , Holyoke became the first city in Western Massachusetts to open a modern farmers market , a novelty at the time, bringing producers directly to consumers.
Nevertheless smaller market agriculture operations, which began in the 20th century, endure today. Among Holyoke's most notable contemporary agricultural organizations is Nuestras Raices. Established in by members of the La Finquita community garden of South Holyoke , as a nonprofit organization it has worked with state and federal agencies to help new farmers build skills and expertise, particularly in the Puerto Rican community, through microloans , direct marketing, and land leasing.
Holyoke also features a prominent example of ecosystem garden permaculture — the Holyoke Edible Food Forest Garden, established in by Eric Toensmeier and Jonathan Bates. In the following decade the two designed and developed their tenth of an acre backyard into a year-round food producing garden, featuring over perennial plant species which sustain limited wildlife populations, and have remediated soil on the site.
Soon after medical marijuana was legalized in Massachusetts, Mayor Alex Morse began promoting the city as a growth and distribution center for the new industry, due to its low energy costs and central proximity to several metropolitan markets. The city's educational needs are served by Holyoke Public Schools , including Holyoke High School , and a number of private institutions. The city is also home to Holyoke Community College , the first community college in the state, which was initially created by the city's school board.
Today the 2-year college selectively allows high school seniors to enroll in its coursework for transferable college credit,  and has the highest percentage of student graduates completing associate degrees and certificate programs among the state's community colleges.
Holyoke Public Library, found at Maple Street, is one of the very few examples of neoclassical architecture in the city of Holyoke, designed by prominent local architect James A. The library established in was originally a room in the old Appleton Street School, and by moved to a central room on the main floor of City Hall.
It remained there until its collections had outgrown this space and a modern facility was required. Clough, the architect who designed the building, gave his services gratis because his daughter was a faithful patron of the library. It opened officially in At the dedication ceremony William Whiting, library president at the time, referred to the library as the "people's college" and added that: Within these walls you will find authors devoted to literature, arts and science, and they are free to any who will ask.
We can say to the citizens of Holyoke you have only to ask her and you will find knowledge to make your life useful and happy. A number of artists have been associated with the city since its founding, including Irish-American sculptor Jerome Connor , who moved to the city at the age of 14, and became best known for his sculptures in Washington, D. On May 2, , Clark W. Bryan , a publisher and stakeholder in The Republican ,  launched Good Housekeeping magazine, originally described as "not to be a bi-monthly cookbook" but "a family journal conducted in the interests of the higher life of the household".
The magazine was subsequently published in Springfield after March , and moved to New York following its acquisition in by the Hearst Corporation. The book covered the final days of his father's furniture and real estate businesses in the city, mirroring its deindustrialization and decline.
During the height of its industrial prowess Holyoke was a regular stop on Vaudeville circuits, with its most famous actress, Eva Tanguay , known as "The Girl Who Made Vaudeville Famous". Tanguay moved to Holyoke at a young age, spending her childhood in the city where she began performing songs at an amateur show at the local Parsons Hall in the s.
Tanguay was soon discovered by a Pennsylvania touring company, and went on to become the first American popular musician to achieve mass-media celebrity. Edward Bernays , the "father of public relations" went on to describe her celebrity as "our first symbol of emergence from the Victorian age". Even as Vaudeville declined in the s, the city remained a regular stop for actors and musicians alike.
Keith Circuit would regularly tour Mountain Park's own playhouse as well. Of venues that once defined Holyoke's stage history, few remain; for the last decade an effort has been underway to restore the Victory Theater by the Massachusetts International Festival of the Arts. In addition to the Volleyball Hall of Fame the city is also home to Wistariahurst. Named for the flowered vines which adorn its gardens, the estate was home to the Skinner Family which produced sewing silk and satins, becoming the largest producer of the latter in the world.
Though no longer in the museum collections, Wistariahurst was once home to the eminent Belle Skinner Collection of Musical Instruments, curated by its namesake Belle Skinner. Several decades after her death, the collection became a substantial part of the Yale University Collection of Musical Instruments. The Children's Museum at Holyoke , started by the Junior League of Holyoke in ,   features a number of hands-on exhibits, including a water table, Lite-Brite wall, and a variety of displays including 2, collector Pez dispensers.
Holyoke is home to the second-largest St. Patrick's Day, the parade draws hundreds of thousands of people from across New England and the Eastern seaboard of United States. In recent years the Holyoke Saint Patrick's Day Parade typically attracts , to , people each year. Since , the city has held an annual Shad Derby every year in May with rare exception.
Every June since it was first introduced by mayor and LGBT activist Alex Morse in , the city has held a rainbow flag -raising ceremony in recognition of Gay Pride Month with the event often featuring speakers, music, and a moment of silence for victims of discrimination and persecution.
Every year the parade grows in popularity, attracting Puerto Ricans from across the northeast. The event, launched in to celebrate the opening of the then-new state park, features live music, food, and open house events for businesses in the downtown and canal district.
In its first year alone the event featured a laser show, and had as many as 40 to 60 thousand attendants over the course of four days; financial difficulties however led to its cancellation in Since , every September the neighborhood association of South Holyoke has hosted El Sabor de South Holyoke Taste of South Holyoke a festival featuring local Puerto Rican cuisine , live music, and other events, including honoring different organizations such as the Holy Trinity Greek Church and Nueva Esperanza for their contributions to the community.
Every November, the International Volleyball Hall of Fame presents awards to its next class of inductees, as the best players of that year are named. The Hall presents three additional awards annually: Morgan Award for outstanding support or promotion of the sport, and Mintonette Medallion of Merit Award in recognition of significant individual achievement, including coaches, referees, scorekeepers and other notable contributors to the sport.
On February 9, , William G. Morgan invented volleyball , originally known as "mintonette" for its similarity to badminton , at the Holyoke YMCA.
The city's legacy in the creation of the sport is also honored by two volleyball clubs in the Netherlands , which borrow its name — Belfeldse Volleybalclub Holyoke , of Belfeld , and Volleybalvereniging Holyoke of Enter.
Holyoke has been home to a handful of minor league and collegiate baseball teams, among the first was the Holyoke Paperweights of the Connecticut League from to Early planning proved difficult for the team as they often had to coordinate with the athletic departments of Holyoke High School and Holyoke Catholic High School for use of the field at that time.
While unsuccessful attempts were made to attract a new team in the years that followed,  Holyoke would not host another until Holyoke has a rich history in the world of boxing.
It was in Holyoke that bantamweight Sixto Escobar , the first Puerto Rican to become a world champion, fought and won his first match in the United States, on May 7, , against bantamweight contender and Canadian flyweight champion Bobby Leitham.
As the 8th ranked amateur super-heavyweight in the country at the age of 16, Tyson won the fight handily with a knock-out , and gained the Western Massachusetts Golden Gloves title. Following an 8-year departure, it returned briefly to the city,   and is held in Springfield today.
Holyoke has two private golf courses in Smith's Ferry , on opposite sides of Mount Tom , the 9-hole Holyoke Country Club and the hole Wyckoff Country Club, the latter of which was originally designed by noted golf course architect Donald Ross. With the construction of Interstate 91 in the s, the course required a redesign. From to much of the landscape was reshaped by golf architect Al Zikorus; today five holes and seven greens remain of Ross's original designs. The Wyckoff course opened in as the Mount Tom Golf Club, and was described as rocky and unrefined in its early years.
Wyckoff remarked the course at the time was "an apology for a [golf] course" and that he wished to find a man who "really knew about the laying out a golf course". Babb, a member of Oakley Country Club , said he knew such a person, introducing Wyckoff to Ross later that year.
Holyoke is home to a wide array of municipal, state, and private land trust parks, including several designed by the Olmsted Brothers. The largest of these is Springdale Park , designed by the brothers in , and today the site of the annual Western Massachusetts Puerto Rican Parade and Festival.
The park is one of three of the city's flagship parks, the other two being Pulaski Park , also an Olmsted design, and the Roberts Sports Complex, former site of Elmwood Park, which abuts Mackenzie Stadium. In total the city department of parks and recreation maintains 47 listed municipal facilities comprising nearly acres, and including several baseball diamonds , playgrounds , a skatepark , basketball courts , tennis courts, a municipal pool, and a dog park.
The latter, once part of the Mount Tom Ski Area , has remained closed since the ski resort shuttered in , and was subsequently purchased in part by the Trustees, along with the U.
In recent years there has been discussion of reopening the property as a nature camp, or potentially as a special permit skiing area, not unlike Mount Snow , however while some have still used the remaining ski slopes in recent years, the area has been subject to vandalism and remains closed with no plans for reopening agreed by its landholders. Holyoke has a strong mayor — council government where the executive historically has broad powers to directly appoint officials or commissions which perform the same function, as well as present an initial budget before the city council.
Other municipal positions such as treasurer or city clerk are elected directly, unless said officeholder is appointed by the mayor in an acting capacity. Holyoke's legislative body is its City Council, which features seven ward representatives and six councilors at large. Historic records refer to the city council as the "Board of Aldermen" until its name changed in ,  however the title also reflected a separate body.
From until , the City Council was bicameral ; the Board of Aldermen consisted of seven at-large members, and a Common Council of 21 presided with 3 representatives per ward. From the ratification of the charter until the s, the common council was eliminated and the Board comprised 21 members with 14 at-large, subsequently changed to 8 at-large and 7 ward members.
The city government comprises 33 offices, departments, and agencies, including utilities which are municipally owned and operated, Holyoke Gas and Electric and the Holyoke Water Works.
In the Massachusetts House of Representatives , Holyoke is represented by Aaron Vega of the 5th Hampden District, which is conterminous with the city's boundaries. The city's state senator is Donald Humason Jr. Politically, the city's largest block of voters are those belonging to no political party , however in recent years the city has largely supported candidates from the Democratic Party by a wide margin.
In , the HPD estimated 3 out of 4 violent crimes were committed by an estimated gang members between Holyoke and Chicopee, often with members being offenders and victims in turf battles over narcotics trafficking. Between and , the violent crime rate for Holyoke decreased by approximately The Republican , based in Springfield , and the Daily Hampshire Gazette of Northampton are the only daily newspapers regularly serving the city.
Holyoke's own newspaper of record , the Holyoke Transcript-Telegram , which had been connected with the city under several variations of that name, ceased publication in Since this time Holyoke has not had its own daily news source but has been served by the weekly Holyoke Sun, managed by Turley Publications , which began publication in Since the area has also been covered by the bilingual monthly El Sol Latino ; published independently out of Amherst , it covers the news of the Pioneer Valley's Puerto Rican community, with considerable coverage given to Holyoke.
Historically Holyoke has had numerous non-English news publications. Between and more than twelve French newspapers were published. Many of these were printed for only a matter of weeks, while the best documented, the weekly La Justice , was published from to , being biweekly in its last six years. In addition to television stations serving the Springfield market , the city is also home to Holyoke Media, a public-access media non-profit.
In its history many smaller productions have been filmed in Holyoke, as well a handful of notable pictures including the neo-noir film Malice and mystery horror drama The Reincarnation of Peter Proud The city served as a filming location for the bodybuilding documentary Pumping Iron , as Mountain Park then held bodybuilding championships at its Clambake Pavilion. The Holyoke Merry-Go-Round was also the setting of a music video sequence in the British documentary Young Heart , chronicling a New England chorus of elders from Northampton who cover classic and contemporary rock songs.
The Soldiers' Home in Holyoke is one of two state-operated veterans healthcare facilities in the Commonwealth, offering longterm residential care as well as outpatient services to Massachusetts veterans. In , the facility received high marks from the Department of Veterans Affairs , showing improved safety measures for elderly residents and no deficiencies in provided care. Interstate highways serving Greater Holyoke include:. Highways serving Greater Holyoke include:.
Massachusetts highways in the area include:. Passenger rail service returned to Holyoke in August , after being absent since The evaluation period of this pilot service will tentatively end in based on the results of the program.
Taken in its entirety, Holyoke has a moderate Walk Score of 55,  however walkability is highly variable between neighborhoods. For example, whereas the rural neighborhood of Rock Valley is entirely car-dependent with a score of 3,  the downtown area, with its grid central to stores, residences, and businesses, yields a Walk Score of In an effort to make the mixed industrial and residential area around the canals more accessible, the city has in recent years constructed the eponymous Canalwalk, a series of walkways linking the downtown to The Flats and South Holyoke.
Despite its industrial history, Holyoke contains no Superfund sites. Citizens cited higher rates of asthma, attributing them to the plant and after many years of discussion it was finally shuttered in December Of the wildlife identified in Holyoke, there are 29 species of fish, 21 of amphibians, 18 of reptiles, at least species of birds including ruby-throated hummingbirds and bald eagles , as well as 42 species of mammals such as black bears and moose.
Less formal relationships, representing symbolic and technical exchanges have also been established with the following cities-. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Holyoke disambiguation. City in Massachusetts, United States. History of papermaking in Massachusetts. Puerto Ricans in Holyoke. From top to bottom: The front facade Holyoke Public Library completed in , as seen from Maple Street, and the expansion .
Holyoke Saint Patrick's Day Parade. Springdale Park and its original vegetation plan by the Olmsted Brothers. List of people from Holyoke, Massachusetts. The Belle Skinner collection of old musical instruments, Holyoke, Massachusetts. Massachusetts; a guide to its places and people. The Everything of Its Two-thousand-year History. To exploit the full potential of a natural waterfall that drops fifty-eight feet within a fifth of a mile on the Connecticut River, nineteenth-century engineers built the industrial city of Holyoke around three circular canals that generated sufficient power to operate Though every one of these mills would close in the years following World War II, the economically stressed community still calls itself 'Paper City.
Fodor's Berkshires and Pioneer Valley. Today, Holyoke—known as the 'birthplace of volleyball'—pays homage to Morgan with its Volleyball Hall of Fame. For use in a trade publication, see "[Paper] Converters Abound in Holyoke- Why converters move to 'Venice of America'—case histories in the city which 'specializes in specialties ' ".
The 'Venice of America'— Holyoke, Mass. Using artifacts and slides, the two will trace what they call 'The Venice of America,' one of the earliest planned industrial communities. For use by a sitting mayor, see Moriarty, Jo-Ann January 29, Proulx says cities are like women. What other cities have what we have? The rolling topography, the mountains and reservoirs, the river, the canals— Holyoke is the Venice of North America.
Retrieved June 9, Archived from the original on July 18, For historical use see "Holyokers in the New South". The average Holyokian takes much pride in the rapid growth and development of the city Malcolm, David J.
Valley Sousa, Frank July 27, Which must be some sort of record when you figure that two Holyokians, Holyokers, whatever, have taken the tourney two out of nine years Archived from the original on January 9, Retrieved August 2, London and New York: Journal of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers. Historic Journal of Massachusetts. Retrieved December 23, Archived from the original on December 23, Retrieved January 31, For medical devices see "Marox Corporation".
Retrieved July 21, For solid waste containers see "International Container Company". For bookbinding agents and archival supplies see "Lineco". Retrieved May 15, Unwin describing his invention of the Venturi Meter.
The letter is dated June 5, , and addressed from the hydraulic engineer's office of the Holyoke Water Power Co. In his letter, Herschel says he tested a one-inch Venturi Meter, under ft. Further, that the shape of the meter should be trumpet-shaped in both directions; such a meter will measure volumes flowing in either direction, which in certain localities becomes a useful attribute Archived from the original PDF on July 10, Retrieved August 24,
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